The power of the unaided mind is greatly exaggerated. It is “things” that make us smart, the cognitive artifacts that allow human beings to overcome the limitations of human memory and conscious reasoning.
And of all the artifacts that have aided cognition, the most important is the development of writing, or more properly, of notational systems: number systems, writing, calendars, notational systems for mathematics, engineering, music and dance. So when I was asked by Forbes to help them “rank the 20 tools which have had the biggest impact on human civilization,” I was ready.
“Writing,” I proclaimed.
I would have to think that language has to be up there, too, although it’s obviously not an artifact.